Most of the Asia-Pacific nations are located in the Hazard Belts of the World. India is a nation with varied climatological and hypsographic conditions. Therefore 70% of the land is drought prone, 60% is prone to earthquake, 12% to Floods, 8% to Cyclones. This counts to almost 85% of the land area in India which is vulnerable to natural hazards while 22 States have been marked as hazards prone states. The main natural hazards in India includes floods, earthquakes, droughts, and cyclones while the minor natural hazards in India are landslides, avalanches, hailstorms, forest fires and bushfires.
Natural disasters in India may occur due to various reasons like
- meteorological phenomena like hurricanes, typhoons, marine or river floods, sheet flooding etc
- Climatic phenomena like E1 Nino Southern Oscillation which results in lowering of the sea level, Monsoon rains failing in India etc.
- Geological happenings like earthquakes, tsunami, and volcanic eruption.
Natural disasters in India take a toll on large number of human and animal lives and destruction of resources thereby causing environment, economic, and social losses. The rural community in India is affected most by the natural hazards since they are susceptible to economic changes, and also lacks proper means of living. Destruction of infrastructure, reduction in food, mass migration, and decrease in fodder supplies are some of the other consequences of the natural disasters that may sometimes lead to more drastic conditions like starvation.
Natural hazard prevention and improvement in India has been increasing. Initiatives have been undertaken to address this disaster issue through the planning and development of an all-comprehensive network of programmes, institutions, plans, and legislation. Over all these years, the Indian Government has been trying to develop an efficient and effective structure of organization to diminish the consequences of the natural hazards in India. Yet much more remains to be done.